Social exclusion covers several different areas; it can refer to the lack of participation with society and also in ones community. It can also be described as processes in which individuals and entire communities of people are intentionally prevented from utilizing their rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to other members of society and which are extremely important for social integration or social inclusion.
Social exclusion can take the form of lack of proper housing, employment opportunities, healthcare, civic engagements, the lack of participation in elections, and the misuse of the due process of law for various groups of a community. The outcome of multiple deprivations such as these has lead to various individuals or groups from participating fully in the social, economic, and political life of the community in which they are residing.
In the case of Brooklyn large numbers of African Americans and Puerto Rican residents lived in the one hundred public housing projects that were located throughout the area. These housing units were for the most part sub-standard and relegated to inner city areas. These residents were also for the most part either unemployed or underemployed which led to a lack of sufficient healthcare for themselves and their families. Just within these small demographics you encounter social exclusion of improper housing, insufficient healthcare, and chronic unemployment.
In Steven Malanga’s critique of Richard Florida’s book “The Rise of the Creative Class” he mentions that several major American cities are omitted from the reported statistics as not being progressive enough in the creative class as other cities that are mentioned in his book are. Florida argues that these cities in the creative class will out perform cities which are not considered to be creative in all aspect of society, especially job creation. He mentions New York City as being a major player in this new creative class theory, but statistics have shown that New York City did not score as well as cities such as Detroit that was not even mentioned in Florida’s book in producing jobs or high growth companies at a rapid rate. These statistics and studies demonstrate how Richard Florida’s theories are not even good at predicting the most basic measure of entrepreneurship. Cities such as San Diego which was on of Florida’s top ranked cities scored way below the norm in establishing fast growing businesses, while a rust belt city like Grand Rapids, Michigan which incidentally is one of Florida’s least creative cities list scored well above the average in this category.
Still there are statistics that show that creative cities also do well in job creation. The creative class of individuals in Brooklyn who were basically a large group of college educated people who unlike the generation before them are tech savvy and entrepreneurial helped to spark a modern revival. Because these folks are tech savvy they can deal with various technical issues that may arise within their communities, and also because they are business oriented they can start up business and provide employment opportunities to individuals living within their community.
In Brooklyn the section of Red hook under its city leadership became extremely detested by its residents due to corruption, and poor city planning. Also the lack of proper policing of the area led to an increase in crime and drug and alcohol abuse. By the latter part of the nineteen sixties thousands of Red Hook residents mostly of Puerto Rican and African American descent had arrived at that particular borough. Studies showed that almost all of these individuals were uneducated and unskilled and were not prepared for the lack of job opportunities for people of this skill level.
In the definition of the Chicago schools, areas such as these and the residents that live in them would be classified as being a ghetto and its residents residing within a ghetto. Comments of individuals living within the Beltway section of Chicago which is predominantly a white middle class community remarked that an influx of non-whites would ghettoize the community. At a particular PTA meeting that was being held at a local school in Beltway one member in the audience expressed his concern over the presence of black students at a Beltway basketball facility. It becomes very obvious that the question of race is one of the deciding factors as to what is considered to be a ghetto. As far as the requirements that do not fit a ghetto the race factor also comes into play. Schools that do not have large amounts of non-white students are considered non ghetto schools.
Neighborhood changes in the borough of Brooklyn took place for various reasons. The influx of college educated individuals began to revive the neighborhood because of their new ideals as to how to improve the area to make it safer and people friendly. Brooklyn also benefited greatly from the different mayoral administrations that passed laws allowing the mixed use of property so that commercial, residential, and light industry facilities were able to occupy the same general area.
Another major factor that Brooklyn was able to be considered a come back city is that a dramatic reduction in crime occurred. Into the latter part of the nineteen nineties the neighborhood drug dealers, and robbers had been pushed out either to prisons situated in upstate New York, or to other forms of activities which were not considered to be illegal.
The changes that occurred in the Beltway were different because there you had the arrival of immigrants who to a large extent did not speak English. The current residents did not like this fact and considered it inappropriate. The residents of the Beltway then had to deal with the question of teenage crime and gangs in their neighborhoods which had not been the case earlier. Then the Beltway residence had to deal with the issue of busing which brought students from other sections of Chicago into the Beltway schools. The residents began to worry that these students would after graduation want to move into the neighborhoods of the Beltway area. Because of these variables the residents of the Beltway came to consider that their community is in decline. The implementation of creative class thinking may help the community to revive as it did in Brooklyn and to stem the increase of criminal activity with new ways to keep the residents of all races living and working together harmoniously.